SAS

EXPLORE YOUR KNOWLEDGE

CDM, Oracle clinical Database

Clinical Research & Clinical Data Management:

Introduction to Clinical Research and Clinical Data Management

Introduction to Oracle Clinical Database

Different Phases of clinical trials

INDA, NDA, ANDA Applications

ICH-GCP Guidelines

Responsibilities of Clinical Trial Team

Protocol and Informed Consent Forms

Roles and Responsibilities of CDM Team

CDM Functions

Clinical Data Management Process and Life cycle

Data Management Plan and Process

Electronic Record and Signatures – 21 CFR Part 11

Case Report Forms, Types of CRFs

Designing of CRFs

CRF Annotation and FDA guidelines

Data Capture Methods and EDC

Data Entry – First pass and Second Pass Entry

Edit Check Specifications

Data Validation Procedures

Discrepancy Management

Data Clarification Forms (DCFs)

Database Locking and Freezing

Data Storage & Archival

Data Coding and Medical Dictionaries

SAE Reconciliation

Quality Assurance & Quality Control

Auditing

CDISC Standards and guidelines

Oracle Clinical Database

Introduction to OC window

Subsystems in OC

Defining Programs and Projects

Defining Organization Units

Defining Regions

Defining Planned Studies

Easy Study Design

Creating Intervals

Creating Events

Creating treatment patterns

Creating Investigator, Site Records and Assignments

Creating Patient Positions and Assignments

Creating Questions

Creating Question Groups

Creating and Maintaining DVG’s

Copy Groups

Creating DCM’s, DCI’s & DCI Books

Validation Procedures

Derivation Procedures

Test a Study

Test Data Entry

Initial Login

Key Changes

First Pass Entry

Second Pass Entry

Comparison Reconciliation

Update

Browse

Patient Enrollment

Missing DCMs

Data Validation(Batch validation)

Discrepancy Management

Data Clarification Forms (DCFs)

Data Extract and SAS Extract

Making Mass Changes

Locking and Freezing

Lab Subsystem

RDC (Remote Data Capture):

Data entry in RDC

Discrepancy Management in RDC

CRFs in RDC

Pharmacovigilance-Argus safety database

Clinical Development process

Different phases of Clinical Trials

CRO and Clinical Research Team

Case Report Forms

Data Coding

IB, Protocol and Informed consent form

History and overview of Pharmacovigilance

Regulatory Authorities

Pharmacovigilance in India

Spontaneous reporting

Active pharmacovigilance

Adverse Events and its types

Drug Safety in clinical trials and post marketed drugs

Different sources of Adverse Events reporting

Different types of AE Reporting Forms

Expedited reporting and its timelines

Aggregate reporting

Different departments working on Pharmacovigilance

Four factors for the reportable case

Causality assessment of the adverse event

MedDRA and WHODD coding

SAE narrative writing

PSUR and its submission timelines

 

Practical Hands-on Training on Oracle Argus Safety Database Argus Console

PV Overview

PV Business process

Introduction to Oracle Argus Safety Database

Family, Product and License creation

Clinical Study configuration

Sites, users and Groups creation

Workflow Configuration

Case priority Configuration

Case Numbering

Field Validation

Code list Configuration

 

Argus Safety

Different icons used during the case processing and their purpose.

Different tabs used in case processing

Case Bookin and Data entry

Case Processing

Case Routing Based on workflow

Case Quality check, Medical review

Duplicate case check or verification

Report Generation for Regulatory Submission

Expedited Reports and Aggregate Reports

Case Bookin in LAM and Routing to Central Safety database

MedDRA coding and WHO DD coding

Narrative Writing

SAS(Base)

INTRODUCTION

NEED FOR SAS

WHO USES SAS

WHAT IS SAS?

OVERVIEW OF BASE SAS SOFTWARE

DATA MANAGEMENT FACILITY

STRUCTURE OF SAS DATASET

SAS PROGRAM

PROGRAMMING LANGUAGE

ELEMENTS OF THE SAS LANGUAGE

RULES FOR SAS STATEMENTS

RULES FOR MOST SAS NAMES

SPECIAL RULES FOR VARIABLE NAMES

TYPES OF VARIABLES

DATA ANALYSIS AND REPORTING UTILITIES

TRADITIONAL OUTPUT

WAYS TO RUN SAS PROGRAMS

SAS WINDOWING ENVIRONMENT

NONINTERACTIVE MODE

BATCH MODE

INTERACTIVE LINE MODE

RUNNING PROGRAMS IN THE SAS WINDOWING ENVIRONMENT

2: HOW SAS WORKS

WRITING YOUR FIRST SAS PROGRAM

A SIMPLE PROGRAM TO READ RAW DATA AND PRODUCE A REPORT

ENHANCING THE PROGRAM

MORE ON COMMENT STATEMENTS

INTERNAL PROCESSING IN SAS

HOW SAS WORKS

THE COMPILATION PHASE

THE EXECUTION PHASE

PROCESSING A DATA STEP: A WALKTHROUGH

CREATING THE INPUT BUFFER AND THE PROGRAM DATA VECTOR

WRITING AN OBSERVATION TO THE SAS DATA SET

FOUR TYPES OF SAS LIBRARIES

SAS LIBRARIES

WORK LIBRARY

SASHELP LIBRARY

SASUSER LIBRARY

3: READING RAW DATA INTO SAS

WHAT IS RAW DATA

DEFINITIONS

DATA VALUES

NUMERIC VALUE

CHARACTER VALUE

STANDARD DATA

NONSTANDARD DATA

NUMERIC DATA

CHARACTER DATA

CHOOSING AN INPUT STYLE

LIST INPUT

MODIFIED LIST INPUT

COLUMN INPUT

FORMATTED INPUT

NAMED INPUT

INSTREAM DATA

CREATING MULTIPLE RECORDS FROM SINGLE INPUT ROW

READING DATA FROM EXTERNAL FILES

READING BLANK SEPARATED VALUES (LIST OR FREE FORM DATA):

READING RAW DATA SEPARATED BY COMMAS (.CSV FILES):

READING IN RAW DATA SEPARATED BY TABS (.TXT FILES):

USING INFORMATS WITH LIST INPUT

SUPPLYING AN INFORMAT STATEMENT WITH LIST INPUT

USING LIST INPUT WITH EMBEDDED DELIMITERS

READING RAW DATA THAT ARE ALIGNED IN COLUMNS:

METHOD 1: COLUMN INPUT

METHOD 2: FORMATTED INPUT

USING MORE THAN ONE INPUT STATEMENT: THE SINGLE TRAILING @

READING COLUMN DATA THAT IS ON MORE THAN ONE LINE

MIXED-STYLE INPUT:

INFILE OPTIONS FOR SPECIAL SITUATIONS

FLOWOVER

MISSOVER

TRUNCOVER

PAD

USING LRECL TO READ VERY LONG LINES OF RAW DATA

CHECKING YOUR DATA AFTER IT HAS BEEN READ INTO SAS

4: READING DATA FROM A DATASET

INTRODUCTION

SET STATEMENT OVERVIEW

AUTOMATIC VARIABLES IN SAS

INTERLEAVE MULTIPLE SAS DATA SETS

COMBINE MULTIPLE SAS DATA SETS

CREATING & MODIFYING VARIABLES

CREATING MULTIPLE DATASETS IN A SINGLE DATA-STEP

SUBSETTING OBSERVATIONS

CONDITIONAL SAS STATEMENTS

LOGICAL AND SPECIAL OPERATORS

THE SAS SUPERVISOR AND THE SET STATEMENT

EFFICIENCY AND THE SET STATEMENT

KNOW YOUR DATA

SET STATEMENT DATA SET OPTIONS

DROP AND KEEP OPTIONS

RENAME OPTION

FIRSTOBS AND OBS OPTIONS

IN OPTION –

WHERE OPTION –

OTHER SET STATEMENT OPTIONS

END OPTION

KEY OPTION

NOBS OPTION

POINT OPTION

DO LOOPS AND THE SET STATEMENT

INTRODUCTION TO RETAIN STATEMENT

CARRY OVER VALUES FROM ONE OBSERVATION TO ANOTHER

COMPARE VALUES ACROSS OBSERVATIONS

ASSIGN INITIAL VALUES

DETERMINING COLUMN ORDER IN OUTPUT DATASET

SAS SYSTEM OPTIONS

5: READING DATA FROM A DATASET

INPUT SAS DATA SET FOR EXAMPLE

SELECTING OBSERVATIONS FOR A NEW SAS DATA SET

DELETING OBSERVATIONS BASED ON A CONDITION

ACCEPTING OBSERVATIONS BASED ON A CONDITION

COMPARING THE DELETE AND SUBSETTING IF STATEMENTS

METHODS OF CREATING NEW DATA SETS WITH A SUBSET

SUBSETTING RECORDS FROM AN EXTERNAL FILE WITH A SUBSETTING IF STATEMENT

SUBSETTING OBSERVATIONS IN A DATA STEP WITH A WHERE STATEMENT

SUBSETTING OBSERVATIONS IN A PROC STEP WITH A WHERE STATEMENT

SUBSETTING OBSERVATIONS IN PROC SQL

DIFFERENCE BETWEEN IF AND WHERE

6: SAS INFORMATS AND FORMATS

OVERVIEW

USING SAS INFORMATS

INPUT STATEMENT

INPUT FUNCTION

INPUTN AND INPUTC FUNCTIONS

ATTRIB AND INFORMAT STATEMENTS

USING SAS FORMATS

FORMAT STATEMENT IN PROCEDURES

PUT STATEMENT

PUT FUNCTION

PUTN AND PUTC FUNCTIONS

BESTw. Format

ADDITIONAL COMMENTS

7: SAS FUNCTIONS

CATEGORIES OF FUNCTIONS

SAS CHARACTER FUNCTIONS

FUNCTIONS THAT CHANGE THE CASE OF CHARACTERS

UPCASE

LOWCASE

PROPCASE

FUNCTIONS THAT REMOVE CHARACTERS FROM STRINGS

FUNCTION: COMPBL

FUNCTION: COMPRESS

FUNCTIONS THAT SEARCH FOR CHARACTERS

FUNCTION: ANYALNUM

FUNCTION: ANYALPHA

FUNCTION: ANYDIGIT

FUNCTION: ANYPUNCT

FUNCTION: ANYSPACE

FUNCTION: NOTALNUM

FUNCTION: NOTALPHA

FUNCTION: NOTDIGIT

FUNCTION: NOTUPPER

FUNCTIONS THAT SEARCH STRINGS

FIND AND FINDC

INDEX, INDEXC, AND INDEXW

FUNCTIONS TO VERIFY DATA

FUNCTION VERIFY

FUNCTIONS THAT EXTRACT PARTS OF STRINGS

FUNCTION: SUBSTR (ON THE LEFT-HAND SIDE OF THE EQUAL SIGN)

FUNCTION: SUBSTRN

FUNCTIONS THAT JOIN TWO OR MORE STRINGS TOGETHER

FUNCTION: CAT

FUNCTION: CATS

FUNCTION: CATT

FUNCTION: CATX

FUNCTIONS THAT REMOVE BLANKS FROM STRINGS

FUNCTION: LEFT

FUNCTION: TRIM

FUNCTION: TRIMN

FUNCTION: STRIP

FUNCTIONS THAT COMPARE STRINGS

FUNCTION: COMPARE

FUNCTIONS THAT DIVIDE STRINGS INTO “WORDS”

FUNCTION: SCAN

FUNCTION: SCANQ

FUNCTIONS THAT SUBSTITUTE LETTERS OR WORDS IN STRINGS

FUNCTION: TRANSLATE

FUNCTION: TRANWRD

FUNCTIONS THAT COMPUTE THE LENGTH OF STRINGS

FUNCTION: LENGTH

FUNCTION: LENGTHC

FUNCTION: LENGTHM

FUNCTION: LENGTHN

FUNCTIONS THAT COUNT THE NUMBER OF LETTERS OR SUBSTRINGS IN A STRING

FUNCTION: COUNT

FUNCTION: COUNTC

MISCELLANEOUS STRING FUNCTIONS

FUNCTION: MISSING

FUNCTION: REPEAT

FUNCTION: REVERSE

SAS DATE AND TIME FUNCTIONS

INTRODUCTION

WHAT IS A SAS DATE AND TIME LITERAL?

DATE AND TIME FUNCTIONS

FUNCTINS TO CREATE DATE AND TIME VALUES

FUNCTIONS TO TAKIE DATETIME VALUES APART

FUNCTIONS TO GET QUARTER ,YEAR OR DAY OF THE DATE

FUNCTIONS THAT WORK WITH INTERVALS

USING FORMATS FOR DATE AND TIME

SYSTEM OPTIONS FORDATE AND TIME

8: AN INTRODUCTION TO ARRAYS AND ARRAY PROCESSING

WHY DO WE NEED ARRAYS?

BASIC ARRAY CONCEPTS

ARRAY STATEMENT

ARRAY REFERENCES

VARIABLE NAME ARRAY REFERENCE

USING ARRAY INDEXES

ONE DIMENSION ARRAYS

MULTI-DIMENSION ARRAYS

TEMPORARY ARRAYS

SORTING ARRAYS

Determining Array Bounds: LBOUND and HBOUND Functions

WHEN TO USE ARRAYS

COMMON ERRORS AND MISUNDERSTANDINGS

INVALID INDEX RANGE

FUNCTION NAME AS AN ARRAY NAME

ARRAY REFERENCED IN MULTIPLE DATA STEPS, BUT DEFINED IN ONLY ONE

9: BY – GROUP PROCESSING

DEFINITIONS FOR BY-GROUP PROCESSING

BY-GROUP PROCESSING

BY VALUE

BY GROUP

FIRST.VARIABLE AND LAST.VARIABLE

MODIFYING SAS DATA SETS: EXAMPLES.

INVOKING BY-GROUP PROCESSING

PREPROCESSING INPUT DATA FOR BY-GROUP PROCESSING

SORTING OBSERVATIONS FOR BY-GROUP PROCESSING

INDEXING FOR BY-GROUP PROCESSING

HOW THE DATA STEP IDENTIFIES BY GROUPS

PROCESSING OBSERVATIONS IN A BY GROUP

HOW SAS DETERMINES FIRST.VARIABLE AND LAST.VARIABLE

PROCESSING BY-GROUPS IN THE DATA STEP

OVERVIEW

PROCESSING BY-GROUPS CONDITIONALLY

DATA NOT IN ALPHABETIC OR NUMERIC ORDER

DATA GROUPED BY FORMATTED VALUES

10: OVERVIEW OF METHODS FOR COMBINING SAS DATA SETS

DEFINITIONS

CONCATENATING

INTERLEAVING

ONE-TO- ONE READING OR ONE-TO-ONE MERGING

MATCH-MERGING

UPDATING

MODIFYING

DEFINITIONS FOR READING, COMBINING, AND MODIFYING SAS DATA SETS

READING A SAS DATA SET

COMBINING SAS DATA SETS

MODIFYING SAS DATA SETS

OVERVIEW OF TOOLS

READING SAS DATA SETS

READING A SINGLE SAS DATA SET

READING FROM MULTIPLE SAS DATA SETS

COMBINING SAS DATA SETS: BASIC CONCEPTS

ONE-TO-ONE

ONE-TO-MANY AND MANY-TO-ONE

MANY-TO-MANY

ACCESS METHODS: SEQUENTIAL VERSUS DIRECT

SEQUENTIAL ACCESS

DIRECT ACCESS

ONE-TO-ONE READING

DATA STEP PROCESSING DURING A ONE-TO-ONE READING

ONE-TO-ONE MERGING

MATCH-MERGING

UPDATING WITH THE UPDATE AND THE MODIFY STATEMENTS :

DEFINITIONS

SYNTAX OF THE UPDATE STATEMENT

SYNTAX OF THE MODIFY STATEMENT –

UPDATING WITH NONMATCHED OBSERVATIONS, MISSING VALUES, AND NEW VARIABLES –

USING AN INDEX WITH THE MODIFY STATEMENT

11: SAS PROCEDURES

INTRODUCTION

THE ANATOMY OF A PROC

THE PROC STATEMENT

TITLE AND FOOTNOTE STATEMENTS

BY STATEMENT

LABEL STATEMENT

FORMAT STATEMENT

RUN OR QUIT STATEMENT

DESCRIPTION OF DATA USED IN REPORTS

SAS REPORTING PROCEDURES

PROCS FOR ALL THAT DETAIL

USING PROC PRINT

USING PROC SQL

PROC REPORT

PROCS THAT SUMMARIZE

USING PROC CHART

USING PROC FREQ

USING PROC MEANS

USING PROC UNIVARIATE

INTRODUCTION TO PROC TABULATE

DATA MANIPULATION AND MANAGEMENT PROCEDURE

PROC SORT

PROC DATASETS

PROC FORMAT

PROC CONTENTS

OTHER IMPORTANT PROCS

PROC TRANSPOSE

DEFINITIONS

PROC PRINTTO

COMPARE PROCEDURE

PROC APPEND

HOW TO IMPORT AN EXCEL FILE INTO SAS

12: THE OUTPUT DELIVERY SYSTEM (ODS)

INTRODUCTION

CREATING VARIOUS TYPES OF REPORTS LISTING OUTPUT

OTHER DESTINATIONS

HTML

PDF AND POSTSCRIPT

RTF FILES

MICROSOFT EXCEL

ADDING STYLE TO YOUR REPORTS

LOCATE EXISTING STYLES

ODS STYLE= OPTION

CUSTOMIZE YOUR REPORTS

ODS SELECT; AND ODS EXCLUDE;

OTHER CUSTOMIZATIONS

ODS PROCLABEL= ;

ODS PROCTITLE; AND ODS NOPROCTITLE;

ADVANCED TECHNIQUES

ODS DOCUMENT

PROC TEMPLATE

SAS Admin Topics

“Reviewing the Platform for SAS Business Analytics”

Exploring the platform for SAS

Business Analytics overview

Exploring the client tier, middle tier, server tier, and data tier

Administering the SAS Environment

Overview of administration tasks

Determining the State of the SAS Environment

Checking the state of SAS servers

Exploring the metadata server and repositories

Troubleshooting the metadata server

Monitoring, Logging, and Troubleshooting SAS Servers

Identifying different types of SAS servers

Monitoring SAS servers and spawners

Logging SAS servers and spawners

Troubleshooting SAS servers

Backing Up the SAS Environment

Backing up metadata with the Backup Wizard

Exploring OMABAKUP

Scheduling backups

Backing up physical files

Administering Client Applications

Exploring connection profiles

Using roles to control access to application

Functionality

Exploring SAS folders

Administering Users

Defining regular users and groups

Defining administrative users

Giving users access to servers

Administering Data Access

Registering libraries

Tables in the metadata

Updating table metadata

Pre-assigning libraries

Troubleshooting data access

Securing Metadata

Introduction to metadata security

Exploring metadata permission

Exploring predefined ACTs

Securing content in the folder tree

Securing content outside the folder tree

Creating additional ACTs

Moving Metadata

Replicating an entire repository

Promoting selected content

Updating the SAS Environment

Applying hot fixes to the SAS environment

SASBI Topics

SAS Enterprise Guide

Introduction on SAS EG Application

Customizing SAS Enterprise Guide options

Setting up and managing profiles

Importing files from sources other than SAS

Accessing data via SAS libraries

Grouping and summarizing data

Introduction to querying data

Filtering and sorting data

Creating new columns with an expression

Joining tables

Grouping and summarizing data in a query (self-study)

Creating new columns by recoding values (self-study)

Creating a frequency report

Generating HTML, PDF, and RTF output

Creating a listing report

Creating a graph

Creating Stored Process from SAS EG.

Creating OLAP cubes from SAS EG.

Working on different STATASTICAL Procedures.

SAS/DI Studio Or ETL Studio

Data ware housing Concept

Exploring SAS Data Integration Studio

Working on Change Management

Explaining how to define source, target data structures and designing jobs.

Introduction to jobs and the job editor

Working with propagation and mappings

Working with intermediate files

Data Transformations

Proc SQL

Lookup Table

Append

Extract

Validate

Return Code Check

Data Transfer

Sort

Rank

Splitter

Control Table

User Written Code

Create Transformation Template

Transpose

Data Access Transformations

File Reader

File Writer

Table Loader

Analysis Transformations

Frequency Report

One-Way Frequency Report

Summary Report

Tabulate Report

Print Report

Standardize

SAS OLAP Cube Studio

o  LAP Introduction

Discuss Dimensions / Facts / Hierarchies / Levels / Measures / Ragged Hierarchies / Aggregation

Create an OLAP Cube from Detail Table (ROLAP)

Create an OLAP Cube from Star Schema (ROLAP, HOLAP)

Create an OLAP Cube from Summarized Table

Create an OLAP * Cube with the following features:

o  Dimensions * Levels * Hierarchies* Measures * Aggregates

Review the Cube design and structure

Exploring OLAP * Cube with

o  SAS Enterprise Guide
o  SAS Information Map Studio
o  Microsoft Office Excel
o  SAS Web Report Studio

SAS Information Map Studio

Introduction to SAS information Map Studio.

Updating an information map with filters, folders, and data items

Adding additional data sources to an information map

o  verview of information map pre-filters

Building a general pre-filter

Building an authorization-based pre-filter

Information Maps and Stored Process.

o  verview of stored processes

Associating stored processes with an information map

Using information maps in SAS Web Report Studio

o  verview of surfacing data with information maps

Using information maps in the SAS Information Delivery Portal

Using information maps in SAS Enterprise Guide

Using information maps in the SAS Add-In For Microsoft Office

o  verview of OLAP cubes

Building an information map for an OLAP cube

SAS Web Report Studio

Introduction on SAS Web Report Studio

Calling Information Maps into WRS.

Creating filters at WRS

Creating Layouts for Reports.

Creating Prompts.

Customizable roles to authorize capabilities(From SMC)

Working on Report Creation and Templates.

SAS Information Delivery Portal

Introduction to SAS IDP

Adding a Portal page

Adding Contents to Portlet.

Adding portlets to page

Utilize SAS EG to create content and publish packages to the framework

Viewing and managing portal content.

Portal Customization

Call Reports from WRS to IDP.

SAS DATA MANAGER BOOT CAMP(Base_n_Adv)

BASE SAS

1: INTRODUCTION TO SAS

INTRODUCTION

NEED FOR SAS

WHO USES SAS

WHAT IS SAS?

OVERVIEW OF BASE SAS SOFTWARE

DATA MANAGEMENT FACILITY

STRUCTURE OF SAS DATASET

SAS PROGRAM

PROGRAMMING LANGUAGE

ELEMENTS OF THE SAS LANGUAGE

RULES FOR SAS STATEMENTS

RULES FOR MOST SAS NAMES

SPECIAL RULES FOR VARIABLE NAMES

TYPES OF VARIABLES

DATA ANALYSIS AND REPORTING UTILITIES

TRADITIONAL OUTPUT

WAYS TO RUN SAS PROGRAMS

SAS WINDOWING ENVIRONMENT

NONINTERACTIVE MODE

BATCH MODE

INTERACTIVE LINE MODE

RUNNING PROGRAMS IN THE SAS WINDOWING ENVIRONMENT

2: HOW SAS WORKS

WRITING YOUR FIRST SAS PROGRAM

A SIMPLE PROGRAM TO READ RAW DATA AND PRODUCE A REPORT

ENHANCING THE PROGRAM

MORE ON COMMENT STATEMENTS

INTERNAL PROCESSING IN SAS

HOW SAS WORKS

THE COMPILATION PHASE

THE EXECUTION PHASE

PROCESSING A DATA STEP: A WALKTHROUGH

CREATING THE INPUT BUFFER AND THE PROGRAM DATA VECTOR

WRITING AN OBSERVATION TO THE SAS DATA SET

FOUR TYPES OF SAS LIBRARIES

SAS LIBRARIES

WORK LIBRARY

SASHELP LIBRARY

SASUSER LIBRARY

3: READING RAW DATA INTO SAS

WHAT IS RAW DATA

DEFINITIONS

DATA VALUES

NUMERIC VALUE

CHARACTER VALUE

STANDARD DATA

NONSTANDARD DATA

NUMERIC DATA

CHARACTER DATA

CHOOSING AN INPUT STYLE

LIST INPUT

MODIFIED LIST INPUT

COLUMN INPUT

FORMATTED INPUT

NAMED INPUT

INSTREAM DATA

CREATING MULTIPLE RECORDS FROM SINGLE INPUT ROW

READING DATA FROM EXTERNAL FILES

READING BLANK SEPARATED VALUES (LIST OR FREE FORM DATA):

READING RAW DATA SEPARATED BY COMMAS (.CSV FILES):

READING IN RAW DATA SEPARATED BY TABS (.TXT FILES):

USING INFORMATS WITH LIST INPUT

SUPPLYING AN INFORMAT STATEMENT WITH LIST INPUT

USING LIST INPUT WITH EMBEDDED DELIMITERS

READING RAW DATA THAT ARE ALIGNED IN COLUMNS:

METHOD 1: COLUMN INPUT

METHOD 2: FORMATTED INPUT

USING MORE THAN ONE INPUT STATEMENT: THE SINGLE TRAILING @

READING COLUMN DATA THAT IS ON MORE THAN ONE LINE

MIXED-STYLE INPUT:

INFILE OPTIONS FOR SPECIAL SITUATIONS

FLOWOVER

MISSOVER

TRUNCOVER

PAD

USING LRECL TO READ VERY LONG LINES OF RAW DATA

CHECKING YOUR DATA AFTER IT HAS BEEN READ INTO SAS

4: READING DATA FROM A DATASET

INTRODUCTION

SET STATEMENT OVERVIEW

AUTOMATIC VARIABLES IN SAS

INTERLEAVE MULTIPLE SAS DATA SETS

COMBINE MULTIPLE SAS DATA SETS

CREATING & MODIFYING VARIABLES

CREATING MULTIPLE DATASETS IN A SINGLE DATA-STEP

SUBSETTING OBSERVATIONS

CONDITIONAL SAS STATEMENTS

LOGICAL AND SPECIAL OPERATORS

THE SAS SUPERVISOR AND THE SET STATEMENT

EFFICIENCY AND THE SET STATEMENT

KNOW YOUR DATA

SET STATEMENT DATA SET OPTIONS

DROP AND KEEP OPTIONS

RENAME OPTION

FIRSTOBS AND OBS OPTIONS

IN OPTION –

WHERE OPTION –

OTHER SET STATEMENT OPTIONS

END OPTION

KEY OPTION

NOBS OPTION

POINT OPTION

DO LOOPS AND THE SET STATEMENT

INTRODUCTION TO RETAIN STATEMENT

CARRY OVER VALUES FROM ONE OBSERVATION TO ANOTHER

COMPARE VALUES ACROSS OBSERVATIONS

ASSIGN INITIAL VALUES

DETERMINING COLUMN ORDER IN OUTPUT DATASET

SAS SYSTEM OPTIONS

5: READING DATA FROM A DATASET

INPUT SAS DATA SET FOR EXAMPLE

SELECTING OBSERVATIONS FOR A NEW SAS DATA SET

DELETING OBSERVATIONS BASED ON A CONDITION

ACCEPTING OBSERVATIONS BASED ON A CONDITION

COMPARING THE DELETE AND SUBSETTING IF STATEMENTS

METHODS OF CREATING NEW DATA SETS WITH A SUBSET

SUBSETTING RECORDS FROM AN EXTERNAL FILE WITH A SUBSETTING IF STATEMENT

SUBSETTING OBSERVATIONS IN A DATA STEP WITH A WHERE STATEMENT

SUBSETTING OBSERVATIONS IN A PROC STEP WITH A WHERE STATEMENT

SUBSETTING OBSERVATIONS IN PROC SQL

DIFFERENCE BETWEEN IF AND WHERE

6: SAS INFORMATS AND FORMATS

OVERVIEW

USING SAS INFORMATS

INPUT STATEMENT

INPUT FUNCTION

INPUTN AND INPUTC FUNCTIONS

ATTRIB AND INFORMAT STATEMENTS

USING SAS FORMATS

FORMAT STATEMENT IN PROCEDURES

PUT STATEMENT

PUT FUNCTION

PUTN AND PUTC FUNCTIONS

BESTw. Format

ADDITIONAL COMMENTS

7: SAS FUNCTIONS

CATEGORIES OF FUNCTIONS

SAS CHARACTER FUNCTIONS

FUNCTIONS THAT CHANGE THE CASE OF CHARACTERS

UPCASE

LOWCASE

PROPCASE

FUNCTIONS THAT REMOVE CHARACTERS FROM STRINGS

FUNCTION: COMPBL

FUNCTION: COMPRESS

FUNCTIONS THAT SEARCH FOR CHARACTERS

FUNCTION: ANYALNUM

FUNCTION: ANYALPHA

FUNCTION: ANYDIGIT

FUNCTION: ANYPUNCT

FUNCTION: ANYSPACE

FUNCTION: NOTALNUM

FUNCTION: NOTALPHA

FUNCTION: NOTDIGIT

FUNCTION: NOTUPPER

FUNCTIONS THAT SEARCH STRINGS

FIND AND FINDC

INDEX, INDEXC, AND INDEXW

FUNCTIONS TO VERIFY DATA

FUNCTION VERIFY

FUNCTIONS THAT EXTRACT PARTS OF STRINGS

FUNCTION: SUBSTR (ON THE LEFT-HAND SIDE OF THE EQUAL SIGN)

FUNCTION: SUBSTRN

FUNCTIONS THAT JOIN TWO OR MORE STRINGS TOGETHER

FUNCTION: CAT

FUNCTION: CATS

FUNCTION: CATT

FUNCTION: CATX

FUNCTIONS THAT REMOVE BLANKS FROM STRINGS

FUNCTION: LEFT

FUNCTION: RIGHT

FUNCTION: TRIM

FUNCTION: TRIMN

FUNCTION: STRIP

FUNCTIONS THAT COMPARE STRINGS

FUNCTION: COMPARE

FUNCTIONS THAT DIVIDE STRINGS INTO “WORDS”

FUNCTION: SCAN

FUNCTION: SCANQ

FUNCTIONS THAT SUBSTITUTE LETTERS OR WORDS IN STRINGS

FUNCTION: TRANSLATE

FUNCTION: TRANWRD

FUNCTIONS THAT COMPUTE THE LENGTH OF STRINGS

FUNCTION: LENGTH

FUNCTION: LENGTHC

FUNCTION: LENGTHM

FUNCTION: LENGTHN

FUNCTIONS THAT COUNT THE NUMBER OF LETTERS OR SUBSTRINGS IN A STRING

FUNCTION: COUNT

FUNCTION: COUNTC

MISCELLANEOUS STRING FUNCTIONS

FUNCTION: MISSING

FUNCTION: REPEAT

FUNCTION: REVERSE

SAS DATE AND TIME FUNCTIONS

INTRODUCTION

WHAT IS A SAS DATE AND TIME LITERAL?

DATE AND TIME FUNCTIONS

FUNCTINS TO CREATE DATE AND TIME VALUES

FUNCTIONS TO TAKIE DATETIME VALUES APART

FUNCTIONS TO GET QUARTER ,YEAR OR DAY OF THE DATE

FUNCTIONS THAT WORK WITH INTERVALS

USING FORMATS FOR DATE AND TIME

SYSTEM OPTIONS FORDATE AND TIME

8: AN INTRODUCTION TO ARRAYS AND ARRAY PROCESSING

WHY DO WE NEED ARRAYS?

BASIC ARRAY CONCEPTS

ARRAY STATEMENT

ARRAY REFERENCES

VARIABLE NAME ARRAY REFERENCE

USING ARRAY INDEXES

ONE DIMENSION ARRAYS

MULTI-DIMENSION ARRAYS

TEMPORARY ARRAYS

SORTING ARRAYS

Determining Array Bounds: LBOUND and HBOUND Functions

WHEN TO USE ARRAYS

COMMON ERRORS AND MISUNDERSTANDINGS

INVALID INDEX RANGE

FUNCTION NAME AS AN ARRAY NAME

ARRAY REFERENCED IN MULTIPLE DATA STEPS, BUT DEFINED IN ONLY ONE

9: BY – GROUP PROCESSING

DEFINITIONS FOR BY-GROUP PROCESSING

BY-GROUP PROCESSING

BY VALUE

BY GROUP

FIRST.VARIABLE AND LAST.VARIABLE

MODIFYING SAS DATA SETS: EXAMPLES.

INVOKING BY-GROUP PROCESSING

PREPROCESSING INPUT DATA FOR BY-GROUP PROCESSING

SORTING OBSERVATIONS FOR BY-GROUP PROCESSING

INDEXING FOR BY-GROUP PROCESSING

HOW THE DATA STEP IDENTIFIES BY GROUPS

PROCESSING OBSERVATIONS IN A BY GROUP

HOW SAS DETERMINES FIRST.VARIABLE AND LAST.VARIABLE

PROCESSING BY-GROUPS IN THE DATA STEP

OVERVIEW

PROCESSING BY-GROUPS CONDITIONALLY

DATA NOT IN ALPHABETIC OR NUMERIC ORDER

DATA GROUPED BY FORMATTED VALUES

10: OVERVIEW OF METHODS FOR COMBINING SAS DATA SETS

DEFINITIONS

CONCATENATING

INTERLEAVING

ONE-TO- ONE READING OR ONE-TO-ONE MERGING

MATCH-MERGING

UPDATING

MODIFYING

DEFINITIONS FOR READING, COMBINING, AND MODIFYING SAS DATA SETS

READING A SAS DATA SET

COMBINING SAS DATA SETS

MODIFYING SAS DATA SETS

OVERVIEW OF TOOLS

READING SAS DATA SETS

READING A SINGLE SAS DATA SET

READING FROM MULTIPLE SAS DATA SETS

COMBINING SAS DATA SETS: BASIC CONCEPTS

ONE-TO-ONE

ONE-TO-MANY AND MANY-TO-ONE

MANY-TO-MANY

ACCESS METHODS: SEQUENTIAL VERSUS DIRECT

SEQUENTIAL ACCESS

DIRECT ACCESS

ONE-TO-ONE READING

DATA STEP PROCESSING DURING A ONE-TO-ONE READING

ONE-TO-ONE MERGING

MATCH-MERGING

UPDATING WITH THE UPDATE AND THE MODIFY STATEMENTS :

DEFINITIONS

SYNTAX OF THE UPDATE STATEMENT

SYNTAX OF THE MODIFY STATEMENT –

UPDATING WITH NONMATCHED OBSERVATIONS, MISSING VALUES, AND NEW VARIABLES –

USING AN INDEX WITH THE MODIFY STATEMENT

11: SAS PROCEDURES

INTRODUCTION

THE ANATOMY OF A PROC

THE PROC STATEMENT

TITLE AND FOOTNOTE STATEMENTS

BY STATEMENT

LABEL STATEMENT

FORMAT STATEMENT

RUN OR QUIT STATEMENT

DESCRIPTION OF DATA USED IN REPORTS

SAS REPORTING PROCEDURES

PROCS FOR ALL THAT DETAIL

USING PROC PRINT

USING PROC SQL

PROC REPORT

PROCS THAT SUMMARIZE

USING PROC CHART

USING PROC FREQ

USING PROC MEANS

USING PROC UNIVARIATE

INTRODUCTION TO PROC TABULATE

DATA MANIPULATION AND MANAGEMENT PROCEDURE

PROC SORT

PROC DATASETS

PROC FORMAT

PROC CONTENTS

OTHER IMPORTANT PROCS

PROC TRANSPOSE

DEFINITIONS

PROC PRINTTO

COMPARE PROCEDURE

PROC APPEND

HOW TO IMPORT AN EXCEL FILE INTO SAS

12: THE OUTPUT DELIVERY SYSTEM (ODS)

INTRODUCTION

CREATING VARIOUS TYPES OF REPORTS LISTING OUTPUT

OTHER DESTINATIONS

HTML

PDF AND POSTSCRIPT

RTF FILES

MICROSOFT EXCEL

ADDING STYLE TO YOUR REPORTS

LOCATE EXISTING STYLES

ODS STYLE= OPTION

CUSTOMIZE YOUR REPORTS

ODS SELECT; AND ODS EXCLUDE;

OTHER CUSTOMIZATIONS

ODS PROCLABEL= ;

ODS PROCTITLE; AND ODS NOPROCTITLE;

ADVANCED TECHNIQUES

ODS DOCUMENT

PROC TEMPLATE

ADV SAS

13: INTRODUCTION TO PROC SQL

INTRODUCTION

WHY LEARN PROC SQL?

SELECT STATEMENT

THE SELECT STATEMENT SYNTAX

A SIMPLE PROC SQL

A COMPLEX PROC SQL

LIMITING INFORMATION ON THE SELECT

CREATING NEW VARIABLES

THE CALCULATED OPTION ON THE SELECT

USING LABELS AND FORMATS

THE CASE EXPRESSION ON THE SELECT

ADDITIONAL SELECT STATEMENT CLAUSES

REMERGING

REMERGING FOR TOTALS

CALCULATING PERCENTAGE

SORTING THE DATA IN PROC SQL

SORT ON NEW COLUMN

SUBSETTING USING THE WHERE

INCORRECT WHERE CLAUSE

WHERE ON COMPUTED COLUMN

SELECTION ON GROUP COLUMN

USE HAVING CLAUSE

CREATING NEW TABLES

JOINING DATASETS USING PROC SQL

INNER JOIN

JOINING THREE OR MORE TABLES

OUTER JOINS

INCLUDING NONMATCHING ROWS WITH THE RIGHT OUTER JOIN

SELECTING ALL ROWS WITH THE FULL OUTER JOIN

CONCATENATING QUERY RESULTS

14: AN INTRODUCTION TO SAS MACROS

INTRODUCTION

SAS MACRO OVERVIEW

TRADITIONAL SAS PROGRAMMING

THE SAS MACRO LANGUAGE

MACRO LANGUAGE COMPONENTS

MACRO VARIABLES

MACRO STATEMENTS

MACRO PROCESSOR FLOW

AUTOMATIC MACRO VARIABLES

MACRO DEBUGGING OPTIONS

WHAT IS A MACRO?

DEFINING AND USING MACROS

POSITIONAL MACRO PARAMETERS

KEYWORD MACRO PARAMETERS

CONDITIONAL MACRO COMPILATION

THE %DO STATEMENT

SAS DATA STEP INTERFACES

15: INTRODUCTION TO DIAGNOSING AND AVOIDING ERRORS

INTRODUCTION

UNDERSTANDING HOW THE SAS SUPERVISOR CHECKS A JOB

UNDERSTANDING HOW SAS PROCESSES ERRORS

DISTINGUISHING TYPES OF ERRORS .SAS RECOGNIZES FOUR KINDS OF ERRORS:

SYNTAX ERRORS

EXECUTION-TIME ERRORS

DATA ERRORS

SEMANTIC ERRORS

DIAGNOSING ERRORS

DIAGNOSING SYNTAX ERRORS

DIAGNOSING DATA ERRORS

USING A QUALITY CONTROL CHECKLIST

SAS_Clinical

1: INTRODUCTION TO SAS

INTRODUCTION

NEED FOR SAS

WHO USES SAS

WHAT IS SAS?

OVERVIEW OF BASE SAS SOFTWARE

DATA MANAGEMENT FACILITY

STRUCTURE OF SAS DATASET

SAS PROGRAM

PROGRAMMING LANGUAGE

ELEMENTS OF THE SAS LANGUAGE

RULES FOR SAS STATEMENTS

RULES FOR MOST SAS NAMES

SPECIAL RULES FOR VARIABLE NAMES

TYPES OF VARIABLES

DATA ANALYSIS AND REPORTING UTILITIES

TRADITIONAL OUTPUT

WAYS TO RUN SAS PROGRAMS

SAS WINDOWING ENVIRONMENT

NONINTERACTIVE MODE

BATCH MODE

INTERACTIVE LINE MODE

RUNNING PROGRAMS IN THE SAS WINDOWING ENVIRONMENT

2: HOW SAS WORKS

WRITING YOUR FIRST SAS PROGRAM

A SIMPLE PROGRAM TO READ RAW DATA AND PRODUCE A REPORT

ENHANCING THE PROGRAM

MORE ON COMMENT STATEMENTS

INTERNAL PROCESSING IN SAS

HOW SAS WORKS

THE COMPILATION PHASE

THE EXECUTION PHASE

PROCESSING A DATA STEP: A WALKTHROUGH

CREATING THE INPUT BUFFER AND THE PROGRAM DATA VECTOR

WRITING AN OBSERVATION TO THE SAS DATA SET

FOUR TYPES OF SAS LIBRARIES

SAS LIBRARIES

WORK LIBRARY

SASHELP LIBRARY

SASUSER LIBRARY

3: READING RAW DATA INTO SAS

WHAT IS RAW DATA

DEFINITIONS

DATA VALUES

NUMERIC VALUE

CHARACTER VALUE

STANDARD DATA

NONSTANDARD DATA

NUMERIC DATA

CHARACTER DATA

CHOOSING AN INPUT STYLE

LIST INPUT

MODIFIED LIST INPUT

COLUMN INPUT

FORMATTED INPUT

NAMED INPUT

INSTREAM DATA

CREATING MULTIPLE RECORDS FROM SINGLE INPUT ROW

READING DATA FROM EXTERNAL FILES

READING BLANK SEPARATED VALUES (LIST OR FREE FORM DATA):

READING RAW DATA SEPARATED BY COMMAS (.CSV FILES):

READING IN RAW DATA SEPARATED BY TABS (.TXT FILES):

USING INFORMATS WITH LIST INPUT

SUPPLYING AN INFORMAT STATEMENT WITH LIST INPUT

USING LIST INPUT WITH EMBEDDED DELIMITERS

READING RAW DATA THAT ARE ALIGNED IN COLUMNS:

METHOD 1: COLUMN INPUT

METHOD 2: FORMATTED INPUT

USING MORE THAN ONE INPUT STATEMENT: THE SINGLE TRAILING @

READING COLUMN DATA THAT IS ON MORE THAN ONE LINE

MIXED-STYLE INPUT:

INFILE OPTIONS FOR SPECIAL SITUATIONS

FLOWOVER

MISSOVER

TRUNCOVER

PAD

USING LRECL TO READ VERY LONG LINES OF RAW DATA

CHECKING YOUR DATA AFTER IT HAS BEEN READ INTO SAS

4: READING DATA FROM A DATASET

INTRODUCTION

SET STATEMENT OVERVIEW

AUTOMATIC VARIABLES IN SAS

INTERLEAVE MULTIPLE SAS DATA SETS

COMBINE MULTIPLE SAS DATA SETS

CREATING & MODIFYING VARIABLES

CREATING MULTIPLE DATASETS IN A SINGLE DATA-STEP

SUBSETTING OBSERVATIONS

CONDITIONAL SAS STATEMENTS

LOGICAL AND SPECIAL OPERATORS

THE SAS SUPERVISOR AND THE SET STATEMENT

EFFICIENCY AND THE SET STATEMENT

KNOW YOUR DATA

SET STATEMENT DATA SET OPTIONS

DROP AND KEEP OPTIONS

RENAME OPTION

FIRSTOBS AND OBS OPTIONS

IN OPTION –

WHERE OPTION –

OTHER SET STATEMENT OPTIONS

END OPTION

KEY OPTION

NOBS OPTION

POINT OPTION

DO LOOPS AND THE SET STATEMENT

INTRODUCTION TO RETAIN STATEMENT

CARRY OVER VALUES FROM ONE OBSERVATION TO ANOTHER

COMPARE VALUES ACROSS OBSERVATIONS

ASSIGN INITIAL VALUES

DETERMINING COLUMN ORDER IN OUTPUT DATASET

SAS SYSTEM OPTIONS

5: READING DATA FROM A DATASET

INPUT SAS DATA SET FOR EXAMPLE

SELECTING OBSERVATIONS FOR A NEW SAS DATA SET

DELETING OBSERVATIONS BASED ON A CONDITION

ACCEPTING OBSERVATIONS BASED ON A CONDITION

COMPARING THE DELETE AND SUBSETTING IF STATEMENTS

METHODS OF CREATING NEW DATA SETS WITH A SUBSET

SUBSETTING RECORDS FROM AN EXTERNAL FILE WITH A SUBSETTING IF STATEMENT

SUBSETTING OBSERVATIONS IN A DATA STEP WITH A WHERE STATEMENT

SUBSETTING OBSERVATIONS IN A PROC STEP WITH A WHERE STATEMENT

SUBSETTING OBSERVATIONS IN PROC SQL

DIFFERENCE BETWEEN IF AND WHERE

6: SAS INFORMATS AND FORMATS

OVERVIEW

USING SAS INFORMATS

INPUT STATEMENT

INPUT FUNCTION

INPUTN AND INPUTC FUNCTIONS

ATTRIB AND INFORMAT STATEMENTS

USING SAS FORMATS

FORMAT STATEMENT IN PROCEDURES

PUT STATEMENT

PUT FUNCTION

PUTN AND PUTC FUNCTIONS

BESTw. Format

ADDITIONAL COMMENTS

7: SAS FUNCTIONS

CATEGORIES OF FUNCTIONS

SAS CHARACTER FUNCTIONS

FUNCTIONS THAT CHANGE THE CASE OF CHARACTERS

UPCASE

LOWCASE

PROPCASE

FUNCTIONS THAT REMOVE CHARACTERS FROM STRINGS

FUNCTION: COMPBL

FUNCTION: COMPRESS

FUNCTIONS THAT SEARCH FOR CHARACTERS

FUNCTION: ANYALNUM

FUNCTION: ANYALPHA

FUNCTION: ANYDIGIT

FUNCTION: ANYPUNCT

FUNCTION: ANYSPACE

FUNCTION: NOTALNUM

FUNCTION: NOTALPHA

FUNCTION: NOTDIGIT

FUNCTION: NOTUPPER

FUNCTIONS THAT SEARCH STRINGS

FIND AND FINDC

INDEX, INDEXC, AND INDEXW

FUNCTIONS TO VERIFY DATA

FUNCTION VERIFY

FUNCTIONS THAT EXTRACT PARTS OF STRINGS

FUNCTION: SUBSTR (ON THE LEFT-HAND SIDE OF THE EQUAL SIGN)

FUNCTION: SUBSTRN

FUNCTIONS THAT JOIN TWO OR MORE STRINGS TOGETHER

FUNCTION: CAT

FUNCTION: CATS

FUNCTION: CATT

FUNCTION: CATX

FUNCTIONS THAT REMOVE BLANKS FROM STRINGS

FUNCTION: LEFT

FUNCTION: RIGHT

FUNCTION: TRIM

FUNCTION: TRIMN

FUNCTION: STRIP

FUNCTIONS THAT COMPARE STRINGS

FUNCTION: COMPARE

FUNCTIONS THAT DIVIDE STRINGS INTO “WORDS”

FUNCTION: SCAN

FUNCTION: SCANQ

FUNCTIONS THAT SUBSTITUTE LETTERS OR WORDS IN STRINGS

FUNCTION: TRANSLATE

FUNCTION: TRANWRD

FUNCTIONS THAT COMPUTE THE LENGTH OF STRINGS

FUNCTION: LENGTH

FUNCTION: LENGTHC

FUNCTION: LENGTHM

FUNCTION: LENGTHN

FUNCTIONS THAT COUNT THE NUMBER OF LETTERS OR SUBSTRINGS IN A STRING

FUNCTION: COUNT

FUNCTION: COUNTC

MISCELLANEOUS STRING FUNCTIONS

FUNCTION: MISSING

FUNCTION: REPEAT

FUNCTION: REVERSE

SAS DATE AND TIME FUNCTIONS

INTRODUCTION

WHAT IS A SAS DATE AND TIME LITERAL?

DATE AND TIME FUNCTIONS

FUNCTINS TO CREATE DATE AND TIME VALUES

FUNCTIONS TO TAKIE DATETIME VALUES APART

FUNCTIONS TO GET QUARTER ,YEAR OR DAY OF THE DATE

FUNCTIONS THAT WORK WITH INTERVALS

USING FORMATS FOR DATE AND TIME

SYSTEM OPTIONS FORDATE AND TIME

8: AN INTRODUCTION TO ARRAYS AND ARRAY PROCESSING

WHY DO WE NEED ARRAYS?

BASIC ARRAY CONCEPTS

ARRAY STATEMENT

ARRAY REFERENCES

VARIABLE NAME ARRAY REFERENCE

USING ARRAY INDEXES

ONE DIMENSION ARRAYS

MULTI-DIMENSION ARRAYS

TEMPORARY ARRAYS

SORTING ARRAYS

Determining Array Bounds: LBOUND and HBOUND Functions

WHEN TO USE ARRAYS

COMMON ERRORS AND MISUNDERSTANDINGS

INVALID INDEX RANGE

FUNCTION NAME AS AN ARRAY NAME

ARRAY REFERENCED IN MULTIPLE DATA STEPS, BUT DEFINED IN ONLY ONE

9: BY – GROUP PROCESSING

DEFINITIONS FOR BY-GROUP PROCESSING

BY-GROUP PROCESSING

BY VALUE

BY GROUP

FIRST.VARIABLE AND LAST.VARIABLE

MODIFYING SAS DATA SETS: EXAMPLES.

INVOKING BY-GROUP PROCESSING

PREPROCESSING INPUT DATA FOR BY-GROUP PROCESSING

SORTING OBSERVATIONS FOR BY-GROUP PROCESSING

INDEXING FOR BY-GROUP PROCESSING

HOW THE DATA STEP IDENTIFIES BY GROUPS

PROCESSING OBSERVATIONS IN A BY GROUP

HOW SAS DETERMINES FIRST.VARIABLE AND LAST.VARIABLE

PROCESSING BY-GROUPS IN THE DATA STEP

OVERVIEW

PROCESSING BY-GROUPS CONDITIONALLY

DATA NOT IN ALPHABETIC OR NUMERIC ORDER

DATA GROUPED BY FORMATTED VALUES

10: OVERVIEW OF METHODS FOR COMBINING SAS DATA SETS

DEFINITIONS

CONCATENATING

INTERLEAVING

ONE-TO- ONE READING OR ONE-TO-ONE MERGING

MATCH-MERGING

UPDATING

MODIFYING

DEFINITIONS FOR READING, COMBINING, AND MODIFYING SAS DATA SETS

READING A SAS DATA SET

COMBINING SAS DATA SETS

MODIFYING SAS DATA SETS

OVERVIEW OF TOOLS

READING SAS DATA SETS

READING A SINGLE SAS DATA SET

READING FROM MULTIPLE SAS DATA SETS

COMBINING SAS DATA SETS: BASIC CONCEPTS

ONE-TO-ONE

ONE-TO-MANY AND MANY-TO-ONE

MANY-TO-MANY

ACCESS METHODS: SEQUENTIAL VERSUS DIRECT

SEQUENTIAL ACCESS

DIRECT ACCESS

ONE-TO-ONE READING

DATA STEP PROCESSING DURING A ONE-TO-ONE READING

ONE-TO-ONE MERGING

MATCH-MERGING

UPDATING WITH THE UPDATE AND THE MODIFY STATEMENTS :

DEFINITIONS

SYNTAX OF THE UPDATE STATEMENT

SYNTAX OF THE MODIFY STATEMENT –

UPDATING WITH NONMATCHED OBSERVATIONS, MISSING VALUES, AND NEW VARIABLES –

USING AN INDEX WITH THE MODIFY STATEMENT

11: SAS PROCEDURES

INTRODUCTION

THE ANATOMY OF A PROC

THE PROC STATEMENT

TITLE AND FOOTNOTE STATEMENTS

BY STATEMENT

LABEL STATEMENT

FORMAT STATEMENT

RUN OR QUIT STATEMENT

DESCRIPTION OF DATA USED IN REPORTS

SAS REPORTING PROCEDURES

PROCS FOR ALL THAT DETAIL

USING PROC PRINT

USING PROC SQL

PROC REPORT

PROCS THAT SUMMARIZE

USING PROC CHART

USING PROC FREQ

USING PROC MEANS

USING PROC UNIVARIATE

INTRODUCTION TO PROC TABULATE

DATA MANIPULATION AND MANAGEMENT PROCEDURE

PROC SORT

PROC DATASETS

PROC FORMAT

PROC CONTENTS

OTHER IMPORTANT PROCS

PROC TRANSPOSE

DEFINITIONS

PROC PRINTTO

COMPARE PROCEDURE

PROC APPEND

HOW TO IMPORT AN EXCEL FILE INTO SAS

12: INTRODUCTION TO PROC SQL

INTRODUCTION

WHY LEARN PROC SQL?

SELECT STATEMENT

THE SELECT STATEMENT SYNTAX

A SIMPLE PROC SQL

A COMPLEX PROC SQL

LIMITING INFORMATION ON THE SELECT

CREATING NEW VARIABLES

THE CALCULATED OPTION ON THE SELECT

USING LABELS AND FORMATS

THE CASE EXPRESSION ON THE SELECT

ADDITIONAL SELECT STATEMENT CLAUSES

REMERGING

REMERGING FOR TOTALS

CALCULATING PERCENTAGE

SORTING THE DATA IN PROC SQL

SORT ON NEW COLUMN

SUBSETTING USING THE WHERE

INCORRECT WHERE CLAUSE

WHERE ON COMPUTED COLUMN

SELECTION ON GROUP COLUMN

USE HAVING CLAUSE

CREATING NEW TABLES

JOINING DATASETS USING PROC SQL

INNER JOIN

JOINING THREE OR MORE TABLES

OUTER JOINS

INCLUDING NONMATCHING ROWS WITH THE RIGHT OUTER JOIN

SELECTING ALL ROWS WITH THE FULL OUTER JOIN

CONCATENATING QUERY RESULTS

13: AN INTRODUCTION TO SAS MACROS

INTRODUCTION

SAS MACRO OVERVIEW

TRADITIONAL SAS PROGRAMMING

THE SAS MACRO LANGUAGE

MACRO LANGUAGE COMPONENTS

MACRO VARIABLES

MACRO STATEMENTS

MACRO PROCESSOR FLOW

AUTOMATIC MACRO VARIABLES

MACRO DEBUGGING OPTIONS

WHAT IS A MACRO?

DEFINING AND USING MACROS

POSITIONAL MACRO PARAMETERS

KEYWORD MACRO PARAMETERS

CONDITIONAL MACRO COMPILATION

THE %DO STATEMENT

SAS DATA STEP INTERFACES

14: THE OUTPUT DELIVERY SYSTEM (ODS)

INTRODUCTION

CREATING VARIOUS TYPES OF REPORTS LISTING OUTPUT

OTHER DESTINATIONS

HTML

PDF AND POSTSCRIPT

RTF FILES

MICROSOFT EXCEL

ADDING STYLE TO YOUR REPORTS

LOCATE EXISTING STYLES

ODS STYLE= OPTION

CUSTOMIZE YOUR REPORTS

ODS SELECT; AND ODS EXCLUDE;

OTHER CUSTOMIZATIONS

ODS PROCLABEL= ;

ODS PROCTITLE; AND ODS NOPROCTITLE;

ADVANCED TECHNIQUES

ODS DOCUMENT

PROC TEMPLATE

15: INTRODUCTION TO DIAGNOSING AND AVOIDING ERRORS

INTRODUCTION

UNDERSTANDING HOW THE SAS SUPERVISOR CHECKS A JOB

UNDERSTANDING HOW SAS PROCESSES ERRORS

DISTINGUISHING TYPES OF ERRORS .SAS RECOGNIZES FOUR KINDS OF ERRORS:

SYNTAX ERRORS

EXECUTION-TIME ERRORS

DATA ERRORS

SEMANTIC ERRORS

DIAGNOSING ERRORS

DIAGNOSING SYNTAX ERRORS

DIAGNOSING DATA ERRORS

USING A QUALITY CONTROL CHECKLIST

16: Introduction to Clinical research

SAS ROLE IN CLINICAL RESEARCH

PROJECT MANAGEMENT IN CLINICAL RESEARCH

WHAT IS CLINICAL RESEARCH

WHAT IS PROTOCOL AND ROLE OF PROTOCOL IN CLINICAL RESEARCH?

WHAT IS RANDOMIZATION AND NON RANDOMIZATION?

WHICH IS PLAYING MAIN ROLE IN CLINICAL RESEARCH?

WHAT IS SOP (STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE)

ROLE OF DBMS TEAM IN CLINICAL RESEARCH

WHAT IS CDM (CLINICAL DATA MANAGEMENT)?

WHAT IS SAP (STATISTICAL ANALYSIS PLAN)?

ROLE OF SAP IN CLINICAL RESEARCH

SAS WORK FLOW IN CLINICAL RESEARCH

RELATION BETWEEN SAS AND DBMS

INTERACTION BETWEEN SAS WITH CDMS FOR DATA ACCESS

VARIOUS REPORT GENERATION IN CLINICAL RESEARCH

17: APPLICATION OF SAS IN CLINICAL DOMAIN

INTRODUCTION TO CLINICAL DOMAIN

DATA ACCESSING

DATA VALIDATION

DATA CLEANSING

PREPARING ANALYSIS DATASETS

DATA ANALYSIS

DATA PRESENTATION

REPORT VALIDATION

PRACTICAL APPLICATION WITH PROJECT

SAS_Finance

1: INTRODUCTION TO SAS

INTRODUCTION

NEED FOR SAS

WHO USES SAS

WHAT IS SAS?

OVERVIEW OF BASE SAS SOFTWARE

DATA MANAGEMENT FACILITY

STRUCTURE OF SAS DATASET

SAS PROGRAM

PROGRAMMING LANGUAGE

ELEMENTS OF THE SAS LANGUAGE

RULES FOR SAS STATEMENTS

RULES FOR MOST SAS NAMES

SPECIAL RULES FOR VARIABLE NAMES

TYPES OF VARIABLES

DATA ANALYSIS AND REPORTING UTILITIES

TRADITIONAL OUTPUT

WAYS TO RUN SAS PROGRAMS

SAS WINDOWING ENVIRONMENT

NONINTERACTIVE MODE

BATCH MODE

INTERACTIVE LINE MODE

RUNNING PROGRAMS IN THE SAS WINDOWING ENVIRONMENT

2: HOW SAS WORKS

WRITING YOUR FIRST SAS PROGRAM

A SIMPLE PROGRAM TO READ RAW DATA AND PRODUCE A REPORT

ENHANCING THE PROGRAM

MORE ON COMMENT STATEMENTS

INTERNAL PROCESSING IN SAS

HOW SAS WORKS

THE COMPILATION PHASE

THE EXECUTION PHASE

PROCESSING A DATA STEP: A WALKTHROUGH

CREATING THE INPUT BUFFER AND THE PROGRAM DATA VECTOR

WRITING AN OBSERVATION TO THE SAS DATA SET

FOUR TYPES OF SAS LIBRARIES

SAS LIBRARIES

WORK LIBRARY

SASHELP LIBRARY

SASUSER LIBRARY

3: READING RAW DATA INTO SAS

WHAT IS RAW DATA

DEFINITIONS

DATA VALUES

NUMERIC VALUE

CHARACTER VALUE

STANDARD DATA

NONSTANDARD DATA

NUMERIC DATA

CHARACTER DATA

CHOOSING AN INPUT STYLE

LIST INPUT

MODIFIED LIST INPUT

COLUMN INPUT

FORMATTED INPUT

NAMED INPUT

INSTREAM DATA

CREATING MULTIPLE RECORDS FROM SINGLE INPUT ROW

READING DATA FROM EXTERNAL FILES

READING BLANK SEPARATED VALUES (LIST OR FREE FORM DATA):

READING RAW DATA SEPARATED BY COMMAS (.CSV FILES):

READING IN RAW DATA SEPARATED BY TABS (.TXT FILES):

USING INFORMATS WITH LIST INPUT

SUPPLYING AN INFORMAT STATEMENT WITH LIST INPUT

USING LIST INPUT WITH EMBEDDED DELIMITERS

READING RAW DATA THAT ARE ALIGNED IN COLUMNS:

METHOD 1: COLUMN INPUT

METHOD 2: FORMATTED INPUT

USING MORE THAN ONE INPUT STATEMENT: THE SINGLE TRAILING @

READING COLUMN DATA THAT IS ON MORE THAN ONE LINE

MIXED-STYLE INPUT:

INFILE OPTIONS FOR SPECIAL SITUATIONS

FLOWOVER

MISSOVER

TRUNCOVER

PAD

USING LRECL TO READ VERY LONG LINES OF RAW DATA

CHECKING YOUR DATA AFTER IT HAS BEEN READ INTO SAS

4: READING DATA FROM A DATASET

INTRODUCTION

SET STATEMENT OVERVIEW

AUTOMATIC VARIABLES IN SAS

INTERLEAVE MULTIPLE SAS DATA SETS

COMBINE MULTIPLE SAS DATA SETS

CREATING & MODIFYING VARIABLES

CREATING MULTIPLE DATASETS IN A SINGLE DATA-STEP

SUBSETTING OBSERVATIONS

CONDITIONAL SAS STATEMENTS

LOGICAL AND SPECIAL OPERATORS

THE SAS SUPERVISOR AND THE SET STATEMENT

EFFICIENCY AND THE SET STATEMENT

KNOW YOUR DATA

SET STATEMENT DATA SET OPTIONS

DROP AND KEEP OPTIONS

RENAME OPTION

FIRSTOBS AND OBS OPTIONS

IN OPTION –

WHERE OPTION –

OTHER SET STATEMENT OPTIONS

END OPTION

KEY OPTION

NOBS OPTION

POINT OPTION

DO LOOPS AND THE SET STATEMENT

INTRODUCTION TO RETAIN STATEMENT

CARRY OVER VALUES FROM ONE OBSERVATION TO ANOTHER

COMPARE VALUES ACROSS OBSERVATIONS

ASSIGN INITIAL VALUES

DETERMINING COLUMN ORDER IN OUTPUT DATASET

SAS SYSTEM OPTIONS

5: READING DATA FROM A DATASET

INPUT SAS DATA SET FOR EXAMPLE

SELECTING OBSERVATIONS FOR A NEW SAS DATA SET

DELETING OBSERVATIONS BASED ON A CONDITION

ACCEPTING OBSERVATIONS BASED ON A CONDITION

COMPARING THE DELETE AND SUBSETTING IF STATEMENTS

METHODS OF CREATING NEW DATA SETS WITH A SUBSET

SUBSETTING RECORDS FROM AN EXTERNAL FILE WITH A SUBSETTING IF STATEMENT

SUBSETTING OBSERVATIONS IN A DATA STEP WITH A WHERE STATEMENT

SUBSETTING OBSERVATIONS IN A PROC STEP WITH A WHERE STATEMENT

SUBSETTING OBSERVATIONS IN PROC SQL

DIFFERENCE BETWEEN IF AND WHERE

6: SAS INFORMATS AND FORMATS

OVERVIEW

USING SAS INFORMATS

INPUT STATEMENT

INPUT FUNCTION

INPUTN AND INPUTC FUNCTIONS

ATTRIB AND INFORMAT STATEMENTS

USING SAS FORMATS

FORMAT STATEMENT IN PROCEDURES

PUT STATEMENT

PUT FUNCTION

PUTN AND PUTC FUNCTIONS

BESTw. Format

ADDITIONAL COMMENTS

7: SAS FUNCTIONS

CATEGORIES OF FUNCTIONS

SAS CHARACTER FUNCTIONS

FUNCTIONS THAT CHANGE THE CASE OF CHARACTERS

UPCASE

LOWCASE

PROPCASE

FUNCTIONS THAT REMOVE CHARACTERS FROM STRINGS

FUNCTION: COMPBL

FUNCTION: COMPRESS

FUNCTIONS THAT SEARCH FOR CHARACTERS

FUNCTION: ANYALNUM

FUNCTION: ANYALPHA

FUNCTION: ANYDIGIT

FUNCTION: ANYPUNCT

FUNCTION: ANYSPACE

FUNCTION: NOTALNUM

FUNCTION: NOTALPHA

FUNCTION: NOTDIGIT

FUNCTION: NOTUPPER

FUNCTIONS THAT SEARCH STRINGS

FIND AND FINDC

INDEX, INDEXC, AND INDEXW

FUNCTIONS TO VERIFY DATA

FUNCTION VERIFY

FUNCTIONS THAT EXTRACT PARTS OF STRINGS

FUNCTION: SUBSTR (ON THE LEFT-HAND SIDE OF THE EQUAL SIGN)

FUNCTION: SUBSTRN

FUNCTIONS THAT JOIN TWO OR MORE STRINGS TOGETHER

FUNCTION: CAT

FUNCTION: CATS

FUNCTION: CATT

FUNCTION: CATX

FUNCTIONS THAT REMOVE BLANKS FROM STRINGS

FUNCTION: LEFT

FUNCTION: RIGHT

FUNCTION: TRIM

FUNCTION: TRIMN

FUNCTION: STRIP

FUNCTIONS THAT COMPARE STRINGS

FUNCTION: COMPARE

FUNCTIONS THAT DIVIDE STRINGS INTO “WORDS”

FUNCTION: SCAN

FUNCTION: SCANQ

FUNCTIONS THAT SUBSTITUTE LETTERS OR WORDS IN STRINGS

FUNCTION: TRANSLATE

FUNCTION: TRANWRD

FUNCTIONS THAT COMPUTE THE LENGTH OF STRINGS

FUNCTION: LENGTH

FUNCTION: LENGTHC

FUNCTION: LENGTHM

FUNCTION: LENGTHN

FUNCTIONS THAT COUNT THE NUMBER OF LETTERS OR SUBSTRINGS IN A STRING

FUNCTION: COUNT

FUNCTION: COUNTC

MISCELLANEOUS STRING FUNCTIONS

FUNCTION: MISSING

FUNCTION: REPEAT

FUNCTION: REVERSE

SAS DATE AND TIME FUNCTIONS

INTRODUCTION

WHAT IS A SAS DATE AND TIME LITERAL?

DATE AND TIME FUNCTIONS

FUNCTINS TO CREATE DATE AND TIME VALUES

FUNCTIONS TO TAKIE DATETIME VALUES APART

FUNCTIONS TO GET QUARTER ,YEAR OR DAY OF THE DATE

FUNCTIONS THAT WORK WITH INTERVALS

USING FORMATS FOR DATE AND TIME

SYSTEM OPTIONS FORDATE AND TIME

8: AN INTRODUCTION TO ARRAYS AND ARRAY PROCESSING

WHY DO WE NEED ARRAYS?

BASIC ARRAY CONCEPTS

ARRAY STATEMENT

ARRAY REFERENCES

VARIABLE NAME ARRAY REFERENCE

USING ARRAY INDEXES

ONE DIMENSION ARRAYS

MULTI-DIMENSION ARRAYS

TEMPORARY ARRAYS

SORTING ARRAYS

Determining Array Bounds: LBOUND and HBOUND Functions

WHEN TO USE ARRAYS

COMMON ERRORS AND MISUNDERSTANDINGS

INVALID INDEX RANGE

FUNCTION NAME AS AN ARRAY NAME

ARRAY REFERENCED IN MULTIPLE DATA STEPS, BUT DEFINED IN ONLY ONE

9: BY – GROUP PROCESSING

DEFINITIONS FOR BY-GROUP PROCESSING

BY-GROUP PROCESSING

BY VALUE

BY GROUP

FIRST.VARIABLE AND LAST.VARIABLE

MODIFYING SAS DATA SETS: EXAMPLES.

INVOKING BY-GROUP PROCESSING

PREPROCESSING INPUT DATA FOR BY-GROUP PROCESSING

SORTING OBSERVATIONS FOR BY-GROUP PROCESSING

INDEXING FOR BY-GROUP PROCESSING

HOW THE DATA STEP IDENTIFIES BY GROUPS

PROCESSING OBSERVATIONS IN A BY GROUP

HOW SAS DETERMINES FIRST.VARIABLE AND LAST.VARIABLE

PROCESSING BY-GROUPS IN THE DATA STEP

OVERVIEW

PROCESSING BY-GROUPS CONDITIONALLY

DATA NOT IN ALPHABETIC OR NUMERIC ORDER

DATA GROUPED BY FORMATTED VALUES

10: OVERVIEW OF METHODS FOR COMBINING SAS DATA SETS

DEFINITIONS

CONCATENATING

INTERLEAVING

ONE-TO- ONE READING OR ONE-TO-ONE MERGING

MATCH-MERGING

UPDATING

MODIFYING

DEFINITIONS FOR READING, COMBINING, AND MODIFYING SAS DATA SETS

READING A SAS DATA SET

COMBINING SAS DATA SETS

MODIFYING SAS DATA SETS

OVERVIEW OF TOOLS

READING SAS DATA SETS

READING A SINGLE SAS DATA SET

READING FROM MULTIPLE SAS DATA SETS

COMBINING SAS DATA SETS: BASIC CONCEPTS

ONE-TO-ONE

ONE-TO-MANY AND MANY-TO-ONE

MANY-TO-MANY

ACCESS METHODS: SEQUENTIAL VERSUS DIRECT

SEQUENTIAL ACCESS

DIRECT ACCESS

ONE-TO-ONE READING

DATA STEP PROCESSING DURING A ONE-TO-ONE READING

ONE-TO-ONE MERGING

MATCH-MERGING

UPDATING WITH THE UPDATE AND THE MODIFY STATEMENTS :

DEFINITIONS

SYNTAX OF THE UPDATE STATEMENT

SYNTAX OF THE MODIFY STATEMENT –

UPDATING WITH NONMATCHED OBSERVATIONS, MISSING VALUES, AND NEW VARIABLES –

USING AN INDEX WITH THE MODIFY STATEMENT

11: SAS PROCEDURES

INTRODUCTION

THE PROC STATEMENT

TITLE AND FOOTNOTE STATEMENTS

BY STATEMENT

LABEL STATEMENT

FORMAT STATEMENT

RUN OR QUIT STATEMENT

DESCRIPTION OF DATA USED IN REPORTS

SAS REPORTING PROCEDURES

PROCS FOR ALL THAT DETAIL

USING PROC PRINT

USING PROC SQL

PROC REPORT

PROCS THAT SUMMARIZE

USING PROC CHART

USING PROC FREQ

USING PROC MEANS

USING PROC UNIVARIATE

INTRODUCTION TO PROC TABULATE

DATA MANIPULATION AND MANAGEMENT PROCEDURE

PROC SORT

PROC DATASETS

PROC FORMAT

PROC CONTENTS

OTHER IMPORTANT PROCS

PROC TRANSPOSE

DEFINITIONS

PROC PRINTTO

COMPARE PROCEDURE

PROC APPEND

HOW TO IMPORT AN EXCEL FILE INTO SAS

12: INTRODUCTION TO PROC SQL

INTRODUCTION

WHY LEARN PROC SQL?

SELECT STATEMENT

THE SELECT STATEMENT SYNTAX

A SIMPLE PROC SQL

A COMPLEX PROC SQL

LIMITING INFORMATION ON THE SELECT

CREATING NEW VARIABLES

THE CALCULATED OPTION ON THE SELECT

USING LABELS AND FORMATS

THE CASE EXPRESSION ON THE SELECT

ADDITIONAL SELECT STATEMENT CLAUSES

REMERGING

REMERGING FOR TOTALS

CALCULATING PERCENTAGE

SORTING THE DATA IN PROC SQL

SORT ON NEW COLUMN

SUBSETTING USING THE WHERE

INCORRECT WHERE CLAUSE

WHERE ON COMPUTED COLUMN

SELECTION ON GROUP COLUMN

USE HAVING CLAUSE

CREATING NEW TABLES

JOINING DATASETS USING PROC SQL

INNER JOIN

JOINING THREE OR MORE TABLES

OUTER JOINS

INCLUDING NONMATCHING ROWS WITH THE RIGHT OUTER JOIN

SELECTING ALL ROWS WITH THE FULL OUTER JOIN

CONCATENATING QUERY RESULTS

13: SAS FINANCE PROCEDURES

PROC LOAN

PROC TIMESERIES

PROC FORECASTING

PROC UPLOAD

PROC DOWNLOAD

PROC EXPAND

PROC UCM

PROC CLUSTER

PROC DISTANCE

PROC TREE

14: AN INTRODUCTION TO SAS MACROS

INTRODUCTION

SAS MACRO OVERVIEW

TRADITIONAL SAS PROGRAMMING

THE SAS MACRO LANGUAGE

MACRO LANGUAGE COMPONENTS

MACRO VARIABLES

MACRO STATEMENTS

MACRO PROCESSOR FLOW

AUTOMATIC MACRO VARIABLES

MACRO DEBUGGING OPTIONS

WHAT IS A MACRO?

DEFINING AND USING MACROS

POSITIONAL MACRO PARAMETERS

KEYWORD MACRO PARAMETERS

CONDITIONAL MACRO COMPILATION

THE %DO STATEMENT

SAS DATA STEP INTERFACES

15: THE OUTPUT DELIVERY SYSTEM (ODS)

INTRODUCTION

CREATING VARIOUS TYPES OF REPORTS LISTING OUTPUT

OTHER DESTINATIONS

HTML

PDF AND POSTSCRIPT

RTF FILES

MICROSOFT EXCEL

ADDING STYLE TO YOUR REPORTS

LOCATE EXISTING STYLES

ODS STYLE= OPTION

CUSTOMIZE YOUR REPORTS

ODS SELECT; AND ODS EXCLUDE;

OTHER CUSTOMIZATIONS

ODS PROCLABEL= ;

ODS PROCTITLE; AND ODS NOPROCTITLE;

ADVANCED TECHNIQUES

ODS DOCUMENT

PROC TEMPLATE

16: INTRODUCTION TO DIAGNOSING AND AVOIDING ERRORS

INTRODUCTION

UNDERSTANDING HOW THE SAS SUPERVISOR CHECKS A JOB

UNDERSTANDING HOW SAS PROCESSES ERRORS

DISTINGUISHING TYPES OF ERRORS .SAS RECOGNIZES FOUR KINDS OF ERRORS:

SYNTAX ERRORS

EXECUTION-TIME ERRORS

DATA ERRORS

SEMANTIC ERRORS

DIAGNOSING ERRORS

DIAGNOSING SYNTAX ERRORS

DIAGNOSING DATA ERRORS

USING A QUALITY CONTROL CHECKLIST